The uucp utility shall copy files named by the source-file
argument to the destination-file argument. The files named can be on
local or remote systems.
The uucp utility cannot guarantee support for all character encodings in
all circumstances. For example, transmission data may be restricted to 7 bits
by the underlying network, 8-bit data and filenames need not be portable to
non-internationalized systems, and so on. Under these circumstances, it is
recommended that only characters defined in the ISO/IEC 646:1991
standard International Reference Version (equivalent to ASCII) 7-bit range of
characters be used, and that only characters defined in the portable filename
character set be used for naming files. The protocol for transfer of files is
unspecified by IEEE Std 1003.1-2001.
Typical implementations of this utility require a communications line configured
to use the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,
Chapter 11, General Terminal Interface, but other communications means may be
used. On systems where there are no available communications means (either
temporarily or permanently), this utility shall write an error message
describing the problem and exit with a non-zero exit status.
A pathname of a file to be copied to, or from, respectively. Either name can
be a pathname on the local machine, or can have the form:
where system-name is taken from a list of system names that uucp
knows about. The destination system-name can also be a list of names
in which case, an attempt is made to send the file via the specified route to
the destination. Care should be taken to ensure that intermediate nodes in the
route are willing to forward information.
The shell pattern matching notation characters '?' , '*' , and
"[...]" appearing in pathname shall be expanded on the
Pathnames can be one of:
An absolute pathname.
A pathname preceded by ~ user where user is a
login name on the specified system and is replaced by that user's login
directory. Note that if an invalid login is specified, the default is to
the public directory (called PUBDIR; the actual location of
PUBDIR is implementation-defined).
A pathname preceded by ~/ destination where
destination is appended to PUBDIR.
This destination is treated as a filename
unless more than one file is being transferred by this request or the
destination is already a directory. To ensure that it is a directory, follow
the destination with a '/' . For example, ~/dan/ as the
destination makes the directory PUBDIR/dan if it does not exist and
puts the requested files in that directory.
Anything else shall be prefixed by the current
If the result is an erroneous pathname for the remote system, the copy shall
fail. If the destination-file is a directory, the last part of the
source-file name shall be used.
The read, write, and execute permissions given by uucp are
The following environment variables shall affect the execution of uucp:
Provide a default value for the internationalization
variables that are unset or null. (See the Base Definitions volume of
IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Internationalization
Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables used to
determine the values of locale categories.)
If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of
all the other internationalization variables.
Determine the locale for the behavior of ranges, equivalence classes, and
multi-character collating elements within bracketed filename
Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of
bytes of text data as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to
multi-byte characters in arguments and input files) and the behavior of
character classes within bracketed filename patterns (for example,
Determine the locale that should be used to affect the
format and contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error, and
informative messages written to standard output.
Determine the location of message catalogs for the
processing of LC_MESSAGES.
The domain of remotely accessible files can (and for obvious security reasons
usually should) be severely restricted.
Note that the '!' character in addresses has to be escaped when using
csh as a command interpreter because of its history substitution
syntax. For ksh and sh the escape is not necessary, but may be
As noted above, shell metacharacters appearing in pathnames are expanded on the
appropriate system. On an internationalized system, this is done under the
control of local settings of LC_COLLATE and LC_CTYPE . Thus,
care should be taken when using bracketed filename patterns, as collation and
typing rules may vary from one system to another. Also be aware that certain
types of expression (that is, equivalence classes, character classes, and
collating symbols) need not be supported on non-internationalized systems.
Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE
Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable
Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue
6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between
this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original
IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original
Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html