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Manuál Linux
[Linux manuál]

mailx: zpracovávat zprávy

Originální popis anglicky: mailx - process messages

Návod, kniha: POSIX Programmer's Manual

STRUČNĚ

Send Mode

mailx [-s subject] address...

Receive Mode

mailx -e
 
 
mailx [-HiNn][-F][-u user]
 
 
mailx -f [-HiNn][-F][file]
 

POPIS / INSTRUKCE

The mailx utility provides a message sending and receiving facility. It has two major modes, selected by the options used: Send Mode and Receive Mode.
On systems that do not support the User Portability Utilities option, an application using mailx shall have the ability to send messages in an unspecified manner (Send Mode). Unless the first character of one or more lines is tilde ( '~' ), all characters in the input message shall appear in the delivered message, but additional characters may be inserted in the message before it is retrieved.
On systems supporting the User Portability Utilities option, mail-receiving capabilities and other interactive features, Receive Mode, described below, also shall be enabled.

Send Mode

Send Mode can be used by applications or users to send messages from the text in standard input.

Receive Mode

Receive Mode is more oriented towards interactive users. Mail can be read and sent in this interactive mode.
When reading mail, mailx provides commands to facilitate saving, deleting, and responding to messages. When sending mail, mailx allows editing, reviewing, and other modification of the message as it is entered.
Incoming mail shall be stored in one or more unspecified locations for each user, collectively called the system mailbox for that user. When mailx is invoked in Receive Mode, the system mailbox shall be the default place to find new mail. As messages are read, they shall be marked to be moved to a secondary file for storage, unless specific action is taken. This secondary file is called the mbox and is normally located in the directory referred to by the HOME environment variable (see MBOX in the ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES section for a description of this file). Messages shall remain in this file until explicitly removed. When the -f option is used to read mail messages from secondary files, messages shall be retained in those files unless specifically removed. All three of these locations-system mailbox, mbox, and secondary file-are referred to in this section as simply "mailboxes", unless more specific identification is required.

OPTIONS

The mailx utility shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.
The following options shall be supported. (Only the -s subject option shall be required on all systems. The other options are required only on systems supporting the User Portability Utilities option.)
-e
Test for the presence of mail in the system mailbox. The mailx utility shall write nothing and exit with a successful return code if there is mail to read.
-f
Read messages from the file named by the file operand instead of the system mailbox. (See also folder.) If no file operand is specified, read messages from mbox instead of the system mailbox.
-F
Record the message in a file named after the first recipient. The name is the login-name portion of the address found first on the To: line in the mail header. Overrides the record variable, if set (see Internal Variables in mailx .)
-H
Write a header summary only.
-i
Ignore interrupts. (See also ignore.)
-n
Do not initialize from the system default start-up file. See the EXTENDED DESCRIPTION section.
-N
Do not write an initial header summary.
-s  subject
Set the Subject header field to subject. All characters in the subject string shall appear in the delivered message. The results are unspecified if subject is longer than {LINE_MAX} - 10 bytes or contains a <newline>.
-u  user
Read the system mailbox of the login name user. This shall only be successful if the invoking user has the appropriate privileges to read the system mailbox of that user.
 

OPERANDS

The following operands shall be supported:
address
Addressee of message. When -n is specified and no user start-up files are accessed (see the EXTENDED DESCRIPTION section), the user or application shall ensure this is an address to pass to the mail delivery system. Any system or user start-up files may enable aliases (see alias under Commands in mailx ) that may modify the form of address before it is passed to the mail delivery system.
file
A pathname of a file to be read instead of the system mailbox when -f is specified. The meaning of the file option-argument shall be affected by the contents of the folder internal variable; see Internal Variables in mailx .
 

STDIN

When mailx is invoked in Send Mode (the first synopsis line), standard input shall be the message to be delivered to the specified addresses. When in Receive Mode, user commands shall be accepted from stdin. If the User Portability Utilities option is not supported, standard input lines beginning with a tilde ( '~' ) character produce unspecified results.
If the User Portability Utilities option is supported, then in both Send and Receive Modes, standard input lines beginning with the escape character (usually tilde ( '~' )) shall affect processing as described in Command Escapes in mailx .

INPUT FILES

When mailx is used as described by this volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, the file option-argument (see the -f option) and the mbox shall be text files containing mail messages, formatted as described in the OUTPUT FILES section. The nature of the system mailbox is unspecified; it need not be a file.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

The following environment variables shall affect the execution of mailx:
DEAD
Determine the pathname of the file in which to save partial messages in case of interrupts or delivery errors. The default shall be dead.letter in the directory named by the HOME variable. The behavior of mailx in saving partial messages is unspecified if the User Portability Utilities option is not supported and DEAD is not defined with the value /dev/null.
EDITOR
Determine the name of a utility to invoke when the edit (see Commands in mailx ) or ~e (see Command Escapes in mailx ) command is used. The default editor is unspecified.  On XSI-conformant systems it is ed. The effects of this variable are unspecified if the User Portability Utilities option is not supported.
HOME
Determine the pathname of the user's home directory.
LANG
Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or null. (See the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Internationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables used to determine the values of locale categories.)
LC_ALL
If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other internationalization variables.
LC_CTYPE
Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte characters in arguments and input files) and the handling of case-insensitive address and header-field comparisons.
LC_TIME
Determine the format and contents of the date and time strings written by mailx.
LC_MESSAGES
Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error and informative messages written to standard output.
LISTER
Determine a string representing the command for writing the contents of the folder directory to standard output when the folders command is given (see folders in Commands in mailx ). Any string acceptable as a command_string operand to the sh -c command shall be valid. If this variable is null or not set, the output command shall be ls. The effects of this variable are unspecified if the User Portability Utilities option is not supported.
MAILRC
Determine the pathname of the start-up file. The default shall be .mailrc in the directory referred to by the HOME environment variable. The behavior of mailx is unspecified if the User Portability Utilities option is not supported and MAILRC is not defined with the value /dev/null.
MBOX
Determine a pathname of the file to save messages from the system mailbox that have been read. The exit command shall override this function, as shall saving the message explicitly in another file. The default shall be mbox in the directory named by the HOME variable. The effects of this variable are unspecified if the User Portability Utilities option is not supported.
NLSPATH
Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .
PAGER
Determine a string representing an output filtering or pagination command for writing the output to the terminal. Any string acceptable as a command_string operand to the sh -c command shall be valid. When standard output is a terminal device, the message output shall be piped through the command if the mailx internal variable crt is set to a value less the number of lines in the message; see Internal Variables in mailx . If the PAGER variable is null or not set, the paginator shall be either more or another paginator utility documented in the system documentation. The effects of this variable are unspecified if the User Portability Utilities option is not supported.
SHELL
Determine the name of a preferred command interpreter. The default shall be sh. The effects of this variable are unspecified if the User Portability Utilities option is not supported.
TERM
If the internal variable screen is not specified, determine the name of the terminal type to indicate in an unspecified manner the number of lines in a screenful of headers. If TERM is not set or is set to null, an unspecified default terminal type shall be used and the value of a screenful is unspecified. The effects of this variable are unspecified if the User Portability Utilities option is not supported.
TZ
This variable may determine the timezone used to calculate date and time strings written by mailx. If TZ is unset or null, an unspecified default timezone shall be used.
VISUAL
Determine a pathname of a utility to invoke when the visual command (see Commands in mailx ) or ~v command-escape (see Command Escapes in mailx ) is used. If this variable is null or not set, the full-screen editor shall be vi. The effects of this variable are unspecified if the User Portability Utilities option is not supported.
 

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS

When mailx is in Send Mode and standard input is not a terminal, it shall take the standard action for all signals.
In Receive Mode, or in Send Mode when standard input is a terminal, if a SIGINT signal is received:
1.
If in command mode, the current command, if there is one, shall be aborted, and a command-mode prompt shall be written.
2.
If in input mode:
a.
If ignore is set, mailx shall write "@\n" , discard the current input line, and continue processing, bypassing the message-abort mechanism described in item 2b.
b.
If the interrupt was received while sending mail, either when in Receive Mode or in Send Mode, a message shall be written, and another subsequent interrupt, with no other intervening characters typed, shall be required to abort the mail message. If in Receive Mode and another interrupt is received, a command-mode prompt shall be written. If in Send Mode and another interrupt is received, mailx shall terminate with a non-zero status.
In both cases listed in item b, if the message is not empty:
i.
If save is enabled and the file named by DEAD can be created, the message shall be written to the file named by DEAD . If the file exists, the message shall be written to replace the contents of the file.
ii.
If save is not enabled, or the file named by DEAD cannot be created, the message shall not be saved.
The mailx utility shall take the standard action for all other signals.

STDOUT

In command and input modes, all output, including prompts and messages, shall be written to standard output.

STDERR

The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES

Various mailx commands and command escapes can create or add to files, including the mbox, the dead-letter file, and secondary mailboxes. When mailx is used as described in this volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, these files shall be text files, formatted as follows: line beginning with From<space>
 
[ one or more header-lines; see Commands in mailx ]
 
empty line
 
[zero or more body lines
 
empty line ]
 
[ line beginning with From<space>...]
where each message begins with the From <space> line shown, preceded by the beginning of the file or an empty line. (The From <space> line is considered to be part of the message header, but not one of the header-lines referred to in Commands in mailx ; thus, it shall not be affected by the discard, ignore, or retain commands.) The formats of the remainder of the From <space> line and any additional header lines are unspecified, except that none shall be empty. The format of a message body line is also unspecified, except that no line following an empty line shall start with From <space>; mailx shall modify any such user-entered message body lines (following an empty line and beginning with From <space>) by adding one or more characters to precede the 'F' ; it may add these characters to From <space> lines that are not preceded by an empty line.
When a message from the system mailbox or entered by the user is not a text file, it is implementation-defined how such a message is stored in files written by mailx.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION

The entire EXTENDED DESCRIPTION section shall apply only to implementations supporting the User Portability Utilities option.
The mailx utility cannot guarantee support for all character encodings in all circumstances. For example, inter-system mail may be restricted to 7-bit data by the underlying network, 8-bit data need not be portable to non-internationalized systems, and so on. Under these circumstances, it is recommended that only characters defined in the ISO/IEC 646:1991 standard International Reference Version (equivalent to ASCII) 7-bit range of characters be used.
When mailx is invoked using one of the Receive Mode synopsis forms, it shall write a page of header-summary lines (if -N was not specified and there are messages, see below), followed by a prompt indicating that mailx can accept regular commands (see Commands in mailx ); this is termed command mode. The page of header-summary lines shall contain the first new message if there are new messages, or the first unread message if there are unread messages, or the first message. When mailx is invoked using the Send Mode synopsis and standard input is a terminal, if no subject is specified on the command line and the asksub variable is set, a prompt for the subject shall be written. At this point, mailx shall be in input mode. This input mode shall also be entered when using one of the Receive Mode synopsis forms and a reply or new message is composed using the reply, Reply, followup, Followup, or mail commands and standard input is a terminal. When the message is typed and the end of the message is encountered, the message shall be passed to the mail delivery software. Commands can be entered by beginning a line with the escape character (by default, tilde ( '~' )) followed by a single command letter and optional arguments. See Commands in mailx for a summary of these commands. It is unspecified what effect these commands will have if standard input is not a terminal when a message is entered using either the Send Mode synopsis, or the Read Mode commands reply, Reply, followup, Followup, or mail.
Note:
For notational convenience, this section uses the default escape character, tilde, in all references and examples.
 
At any time, the behavior of mailx shall be governed by a set of environmental and internal variables. These are flags and valued parameters that can be set and cleared via the mailx set and unset commands.
Regular commands are of the form:
 
[command] [msglist] [argument ...]
If no command is specified in command mode, next shall be assumed. In input mode, commands shall be recognized by the escape character, and lines not treated as commands shall be taken as input for the message.
In command mode, each message shall be assigned a sequential number, starting with 1.
All messages have a state that shall affect how they are displayed in the header summary and how they are retained or deleted upon termination of mailx. There is at any time the notion of a current message, which shall be marked by a '>' at the beginning of a line in the header summary. When mailx is invoked using one of the Receive Mode synopsis forms, the current message shall be the first new message, if there is a new message, or the first unread message if there is an unread message, or the first message if there are any messages, or unspecified if there are no messages in the mailbox. Each command that takes an optional list of messages ( msglist) or an optional single message ( message) on which to operate shall leave the current message set to the highest-numbered message of the messages specified, unless the command deletes messages, in which case the current message shall be set to the first undeleted message (that is, a message not in the deleted state) after the highest-numbered message deleted by the command, if one exists, or the first undeleted message before the highest-numbered message deleted by the command, if one exists, or to an unspecified value if there are no remaining undeleted messages. All messages shall be in one of the following states:
new
The message is present in the system mailbox and has not been viewed by the user or moved to any other state. Messages in state new when mailx quits shall be retained in the system mailbox.
unread
The message has been present in the system mailbox for more than one invocation of mailx and has not been viewed by the user or moved to any other state. Messages in state unread when mailx quits shall be retained in the system mailbox.
read
The message has been processed by one of the following commands: ~f, ~m, ~F, ~M, copy, mbox, next, pipe, print, Print, top, type, Type, undelete. The delete, dp, and dt commands may also cause the next message to be marked as read, depending on the value of the autoprint variable. Messages that are in the system mailbox and in state read when mailx quits shall be saved in the mbox, unless the internal variable hold was set. Messages that are in the mbox or in a secondary mailbox and in state read when mailx quits shall be retained in their current location.
deleted
The message has been processed by one of the following commands: delete, dp, dt. Messages in state deleted when mailx quits shall be deleted. Deleted messages shall be ignored until mailx quits or changes mailboxes or they are specified to the undelete command; for example, the message specification / string shall only search the subject lines of messages that have not yet been deleted, unless the command operating on the list of messages is undelete. No deleted message or deleted message header shall be displayed by any mailx command other than undelete.
preserved
The message has been processed by a preserve command. When mailx quits, the message shall be retained in its current location.
saved
The message has been processed by one of the following commands: save or write. If the current mailbox is the system mailbox, and the internal variable keepsave is set, messages in the state saved shall be saved to the file designated by the MBOX variable (see the ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES section). If the current mailbox is the system mailbox, messages in the state saved shall be deleted from the current mailbox, when the quit or file command is used to exit the current mailbox.
 
The header-summary line for each message shall indicate the state of the message.
Many commands take an optional list of messages ( msglist) on which to operate, which defaults to the current message. A msglist is a list of message specifications separated by <blank>s, which can include:
n
Message number n.
+
The next undeleted message, or the next deleted message for the undelete command.
-
The next previous undeleted message, or the next previous deleted message for the undelete command.
.
The current message.
^
The first undeleted message, or the first deleted message for the undelete command.
$
The last message.
*
All messages.
n-m
An inclusive range of message numbers.
address
All messages from address; any address as shown in a header summary shall be matchable in this form.
/string
All messages with string in the subject line (case ignored).
:c
All messages of type c, where c shall be one of:
d
Deleted messages.
n
New messages.
o
Old messages (any not in state read or new).
r
Read messages.
u
Unread messages.
 
 
Other commands take an optional message ( message) on which to operate, which defaults to the current message. All of the forms allowed for msglist are also allowed for message, but if more than one message is specified, only the first shall be operated on.
Other arguments are usually arbitrary strings whose usage depends on the command involved.

Start-Up in mailx

At start-up time, mailx shall take the following steps in sequence:
1.
Establish all variables at their stated default values.
2.
Process command line options, overriding corresponding default values.
3.
Import any of the DEAD , EDITOR , MBOX , LISTER , PAGER , SHELL , or VISUAL variables that are present in the environment, overriding the corresponding default values.
4.
Read mailx commands from an unspecified system start-up file, unless the -n option is given, to initialize any internal mailx variables and aliases.
5.
Process the start-up file of mailx commands named in the user MAILRC variable.
Most regular mailx commands are valid inside start-up files, the most common use being to set up initial display options and alias lists. The following commands shall be invalid in the start-up file: !, edit, hold, mail, preserve, reply, Reply, shell, visual, Copy, followup, and Followup. Any errors in the start-up file shall either cause mailx to terminate with a diagnostic message and a non-zero status or to continue after writing a diagnostic message, ignoring the remainder of the lines in the start-up file.
A blank line in a start-up file shall be ignored.

Internal Variables in mailx

The following variables are internal mailx variables. Each internal variable can be set via the mailx set command at any time. The unset and set no name commands can be used to erase variables.
In the following list, variables shown as:
 
variable
represent Boolean values. Variables shown as:
 
variable=value
shall be assigned string or numeric values. For string values, the rules in Commands in mailx concerning filenames and quoting shall also apply.
The defaults specified here may be changed by the implementation-defined system start-up file unless the user specifies the -n option.
allnet
All network names whose login name components match shall be treated as identical. This shall cause the msglist message specifications to behave similarly. The default shall be noallnet. See also the alternates command and the metoo variable.
append
Append messages to the end of the mbox file upon termination instead of placing them at the beginning. The default shall be noappend. This variable shall not affect the save command when saving to mbox.
askasksub
Prompt for a subject line on outgoing mail if one is not specified on the command line with the -s option. The ask and asksub forms are synonyms; the system shall refer to asksub and noasksub in its messages, but shall accept ask and noask as user input to mean asksub and noasksub. It shall not be possible to set both ask and noasksub, or noask and asksub. The default shall be asksub, but no prompting shall be done if standard input is not a terminal.
askbcc
Prompt for the blind copy list. The default shall be noaskbcc.
askcc
Prompt for the copy list. The default shall be noaskcc.
autoprint
Enable automatic writing of messages after delete and undelete commands. The default shall be noautoprint.
bang
Enable the special-case treatment of exclamation marks ( '!' ) in escape command lines; see the escape command and Command Escapes in mailx . The default shall be nobang, disabling the expansion of '!' in the command argument to the ~! command and the ~<! command escape.
cmd=command
 
Set the default command to be invoked by the pipe command. The default shall be nocmd.
crt=number
Pipe messages having more than number lines through the command specified by the value of the PAGER variable. The default shall be nocrt. If it is set to null, the value used is implementation-defined.
debug
Enable verbose diagnostics for debugging. Messages are not delivered. The default shall be nodebug.
dot
When dot is set, a period on a line by itself during message input from a terminal shall also signify end-of-file (in addition to normal end-of-file). The default shall be nodot. If ignoreeof is set (see below), a setting of nodot shall be ignored and the period is the only method to terminate input mode.
escape=c
Set the command escape character to be the character 'c' . By default, the command escape character shall be tilde. If escape is unset, tilde shall be used; if it is set to null, command escaping shall be disabled.
flipr
Reverse the meanings of the R and r commands. The default shall be noflipr.
folder=directory
 
The default directory for saving mail files. User-specified filenames beginning with a plus sign ( '+' ) shall be expanded by preceding the filename with this directory name to obtain the real pathname. If directory does not start with a slash ( '/' ), the contents of HOME shall be prefixed to it. The default shall be nofolder. If folder is unset or set to null, user-specified filenames beginning with '+' shall refer to files in the current directory that begin with the literal '+' character. See also outfolder below. The folder value need not affect the processing of the files named in MBOX and DEAD .
header
Enable writing of the header summary when entering mailx in Receive Mode. The default shall be header.
hold
Preserve all messages that are read in the system mailbox instead of putting them in the mbox save file. The default shall be nohold.
ignore
Ignore interrupts while entering messages. The default shall be noignore.
ignoreeof
Ignore normal end-of-file during message input. Input can be terminated only by entering a period ( '.' ) on a line by itself or by the ~. command escape. The default shall be noignoreeof. See also dot above.
indentprefix=string
 
A string that shall be added as a prefix to each line that is inserted into the message by the ~m command escape. This variable shall default to one <tab>.
keep
When a system mailbox, secondary mailbox, or mbox is empty, truncate it to zero length instead of removing it. The default shall be nokeep.
keepsave
Keep the messages that have been saved from the system mailbox into other files in the file designated by the variable MBOX , instead of deleting them. The default shall be nokeepsave.
metoo
Suppress the deletion of the login name of the user from the recipient list when replying to a message or sending to a group. The default shall be nometoo.
onehop
When responding to a message that was originally sent to several recipients, the other recipient addresses are normally forced to be relative to the originating author's machine for the response. This flag disables alteration of the recipients' addresses, improving efficiency in a network where all machines can send directly to all other machines (that is, one hop away). The default shall be noonehop.
outfolder
Cause the files used to record outgoing messages to be located in the directory specified by the folder variable unless the pathname is absolute. The default shall be nooutfolder. See the record variable.
page
Insert a <form-feed> after each message sent through the pipe created by the pipe command. The default shall be nopage.
prompt=string
 
Set the command-mode prompt to string. If string is null or if noprompt is set, no prompting shall occur. The default shall be to prompt with the string "? " .
quiet
Refrain from writing the opening message and version when entering mailx. The default shall be noquiet.
record=file
Record all outgoing mail in the file with the pathname file. The default shall be norecord. See also outfolder above.
save
Enable saving of messages in the dead-letter file on interrupt or delivery error. See the variable DEAD for the location of the dead-letter file. The default shall be save.
screen=number
 
Set the number of lines in a screenful of headers for the headers and z commands. If screen is not specified, a value based on the terminal type identified by the TERM environment variable, the window size, the baud rate, or some combination of these shall be used.
sendwait
Wait for the background mailer to finish before returning. The default shall be nosendwait.
showto
When the sender of the message was the user who is invoking mailx, write the information from the To: line instead of the From: line in the header summary. The default shall be noshowto.
sign=string
Set the variable inserted into the text of a message when the ~a command escape is given. The default shall be nosign. The character sequences '\t' and '\n' shall be recognized in the variable as <tab>s and <newline>s, respectively. (See also ~i in Command Escapes in mailx .)
Sign=string
Set the variable inserted into the text of a message when the ~A command escape is given. The default shall be noSign. The character sequences '\t' and '\n' shall be recognized in the variable as <tab>s and <newline>s, respectively.
toplines=number
 
Set the number of lines of the message to write with the top command. The default shall be 5.
 

Commands in mailx

The following mailx commands shall be provided. In the following list, header refers to lines from the message header, as shown in the OUTPUT FILES section. Header-line refers to lines within the header that begin with one or more non-white-space characters, immediately followed by a colon and white space and continuing until the next line beginning with a non-white-space character or an empty line. Header-field refers to the portion of a header line prior to the first colon in that line.
For each of the commands listed below, the command can be entered as the abbreviation (those characters in the Synopsis command word preceding the '[' ), the full command (all characters shown for the command word, omitting the '[' and ']' ), or any truncation of the full command down to the abbreviation. For example, the exit command (shown as ex[it] in the Synopsis) can be entered as ex, exi, or exit.
The arguments to commands can be quoted, using the following methods:
*
An argument can be enclosed between paired double-quotes ( "" ) or single-quotes ( '' ); any white space, shell word expansion, or backslash characters within the quotes shall be treated literally as part of the argument. A double-quote shall be treated literally within single-quotes and vice versa. These special properties of the quote marks shall occur only when they are paired at the beginning and end of the argument.
*
A backslash outside of the enclosing quotes shall be discarded and the following character treated literally as part of the argument.
*
An unquoted backslash at the end of a command line shall be discarded and the next line shall continue the command.
Filenames, where expected, shall be subjected to the following transformations, in sequence:
*
If the filename begins with an unquoted plus sign, and the folder variable is defined (see the folder variable), the plus sign shall be replaced by the value of the folder variable followed by a slash. If the folder variable is unset or is set to null, the filename shall be unchanged.
*
Shell word expansions shall be applied to the filename (see Word Expansions ). If more than a single pathname results from this expansion and the command is expecting one file, the effects are unspecified.

Declare Aliases

Synopsis:
 
a[lias] [alias [address...]]g[roup] [alias [address...]]
 
Add the given addresses to the alias specified by alias. The names shall be substituted when alias is used as a recipient address specified by the user in an outgoing message (that is, other recipients addressed indirectly through the reply command shall not be substituted in this manner). Mail address alias substitution shall apply only when the alias string is used as a full address; for example, when hlj is an alias, hlj@posix.com does not trigger the alias substitution. If no arguments are given, write a listing of the current aliases to standard output. If only an alias argument is given, write a listing of the specified alias to standard output. These listings need not reflect the same order of addresses that were entered.

Declare Alternatives

Synopsis:
 
alt[ernates] name...
 
(See also the metoo command.) Declare a list of alternative names for the user's login. When responding to a message, these names shall be removed from the list of recipients for the response. The comparison of names shall be in a case-insensitive manner. With no arguments, alternates shall write the current list of alternative names.

Change Current Directory

Synopsis:
 
cd [directory]ch[dir] [directory]
 
Change directory. If directory is not specified, the contents of HOME shall be used.

Copy Messages

Synopsis:
 
c[opy] [file]c[opy] [msglist] fileC[opy] [msglist]
 
Copy messages to the file named by the pathname file without marking the messages as saved. Otherwise, it shall be equivalent to the save command.
In the capitalized form, save the specified messages in a file whose name is derived from the author of the message to be saved, without marking the messages as saved. Otherwise, it shall be equivalent to the Save command.

Delete Messages

Synopsis:
 
d[elete] [msglist]
 
Mark messages for deletion from the mailbox. The deletions shall not occur until mailx quits (see the quit command) or changes mailboxes (see the folder command). If autoprint is set and there are messages remaining after the delete command, the current message shall be written as described for the print command (see the print command); otherwise, the mailx prompt shall be written.

Discard Header Fields

Synopsis:
 
di[scard] [header-field...]ig[nore] [header-field...]
 
Suppress the specified header fields when writing messages. Specified header-fields shall be added to the list of suppressed header fields. Examples of header fields to ignore are status and cc. The fields shall be included when the message is saved. The Print and Type commands shall override this command. The comparison of header fields shall be in a case-insensitive manner. If no arguments are specified, write a list of the currently suppressed header fields to standard output; the listing need not reflect the same order of header fields that were entered.
If both retain and discard commands are given, discard commands shall be ignored.

Delete Messages and Display

Synopsis:
 
dp [msglist]dt [msglist]
 
Delete the specified messages as described for the delete command, except that the autoprint variable shall have no effect, and the current message shall be written only if it was set to a message after the last message deleted by the command. Otherwise, an informational message to the effect that there are no further messages in the mailbox shall be written, followed by the mailx prompt.

Echo a String

Synopsis:
 
ec[ho] string ...
 
Echo the given strings, equivalent to the shell echo utility.

Edit Messages

Synopsis:
 
e[dit] [msglist]
 
Edit the given messages. The messages shall be placed in a temporary file and the utility named by the EDITOR variable is invoked to edit each file in sequence. The default EDITOR is unspecified.
The edit command does not modify the contents of those messages in the mailbox.

Exit

Synopsis:
 
ex[it]x[it]
 
Exit from mailx without changing the mailbox. No messages shall be saved in the mbox (see also quit).

Change Folder

Synopsis:
 
fi[le] [file]fold[er] [file]
 
Quit (see the quit command) from the current file of messages and read in the file named by the pathname file. If no argument is given, the name and status of the current mailbox shall be written.
Several unquoted special characters shall be recognized when used as file names, with the following substitutions:
%
The system mailbox for the invoking user.
%user
The system mailbox for user.
#
The previous file.
&
The current mbox.
+file
The named file in the folder directory. (See the folder variable.)
 
The default file shall be the current mailbox.

Display List of Folders

Synopsis:
 
folders
 
Write the names of the files in the directory set by the folder variable. The command specified by the LISTER environment variable shall be used (see the ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES section).

Follow Up Specified Messages

Synopsis:
 
fo[llowup] [message]F[ollowup] [msglist]
 
In the lowercase form, respond to a message, recording the response in a file whose name is derived from the author of the message. See also the save and copy commands and outfolder.
In the capitalized form, respond to the first message in the msglist, sending the message to the author of each message in the msglist. The subject line shall be taken from the first message and the response shall be recorded in a file whose name is derived from the author of the first message. See also the Save and Copy commands and outfolder.
Both forms shall override the record variable, if set.

Display Header Summary for Specified Messages

Synopsis:
 
f[rom] [msglist]
 
Write the header summary for the specified messages.

Display Header Summary

Synopsis:
 
h[eaders] [message]
 
Write the page of headers that includes the message specified. If the message argument is not specified, the current message shall not change. However, if the message argument is specified, the current message shall become the message that appears at the top of the page of headers that includes the message specified. The screen variable sets the number of headers per page. See also the z command.

Help

Synopsis:
 
hel[p]?
 
Write a summary of commands.

Hold Messages

Synopsis:
 
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