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Manuál Linux
[Linux manuál]

getspnam, getspnam_r, getspent, getspent_r, setspent, endspent, fgetspent, fgetspent_r, sgetspent, sgetspent_r, putspent, lckpwdf, ulckpwdf: získejte záznam do stínového hesla

Originální popis anglicky: getspnam, getspnam_r, getspent, getspent_r, setspent, endspent, fgetspent, fgetspent_r, sgetspent, sgetspent_r, putspent, lckpwdf, ulckpwdf - get shadow password file entry

Návod, kniha: Linux Programmer's Manual


/* General shadow password file API */
#include <shadow.h>
struct spwd *getspnam(const char *name);
struct spwd *getspent(void);
void setspent(void);
void endspent(void);
struct spwd *fgetspent(FILE *fp);
struct spwd *sgetspent(const char *s);
int putspent(struct spwd *p, FILE *fp);
int lckpwdf(void);
int ulckpwdf(void);
/* GNU extension */
#define _SVID_SOURCE /* or _BSD_SOURCE */
#include <shadow.h>
int getspent_r(struct spwd *spbuf,
char *buf, size_t buflen, struct spwd **spbufp);
int getspnam_r(const char *name, struct spwd *spbuf,
char *buf, size_t buflen, struct spwd **spbufp);
int fgetspent_r(FILE *fp, struct spwd *spbuf,
char *buf, size_t buflen, struct spwd **spbufp);
int sgetspent_r(const char *s, struct spwd *spbuf,
char *buf, size_t buflen, struct spwd **spbufp);


Long ago it was considered safe to have encrypted passwords openly visible in the password file. When computers got faster and people got more security-conscious, this was no longer acceptable. Julianne Frances Haugh implemented the shadow password suite that keeps the encrypted passwords in /etc/shadow, readable only by root.
The access routines described below resemble those for /etc/passwd. This shadow password setup has been superseded by PAM (pluggable authentication modules), and the file /etc/nsswitch.conf now describes the sources to be used.
The getspnam() function returns a pointer to a structure containing the broken out fields of a line from /etc/shadow for the entry that matches the user name name.
The getspent() function returns a pointer to the next entry in the shadow password file. The position in the input stream is initialized by setspent(). When done reading, the program may call endspent() so that resources can be deallocated.
The fgetspent() function is similar to getspent() but uses the supplied stream instead of the one implicitly opened by setspent().
The sgetspent() function parses the supplied string s into a struct spwd.
The putspent() function writes the contents of the supplied struct spwd *p as a text line in the shadow password file format to the stream fp. String entries with value NULL and numerical entries with value -1 are written as an empty string.
The lckpwdf() function is intended to protect against multiple access of the shadow password database. It tries to acquire a lock, and returns 0 on success, -1 on failure (lock not obtained within 15 seconds). The ulckpwdf() function releases the lock again. Note that there is no protection against direct access of the shadow password file. Only programs that use lckpwdf() will notice the lock.
These were the routines that formed the original shadow API. They are widely available.

Reentrant versions

Analogous to the "reentrant" routines for the password file, glibc also has reentrant versions here. The getspnam_r() function is like getspnam() but stores the retrieved shadow passwd structure in the space pointed to by spbuf. This shadow passwd structure contains pointers to strings, and these strings are stored in the buffer buf of size buflen. A pointer to the result (in case of success) or NULL (in case no entry was found or an error occurred) is stored in *spbufp.
The functions getspent_r(), fgetspent_r(), and sgetspent_r() are completely analogous.
Some non-glibc systems also have functions with these names, often with different prototypes.


The shadow passwd structure is defined in <shadow.h> as follows:
struct spwd {
    char *sp_namp;         /* Login name */
    char *sp_pwdp;         /* Encrypted password */
    long sp_lstchg;        /* Date of last change */
    long sp_min;           /* Min #days between changes */
    long sp_max;           /* Max #days between changes */
    long sp_warn;          /* #days before pwd expires
                              to warn user to change it */
    long sp_inact;         /* #days after pwd expires
                              until account is disabled */
    long sp_expire;        /* #days since 1970-01-01
                              until account is disabled */
    unsigned long sp_flag; /* Reserved */


Routines return NULL if no more entries are available or if an error occurs during processing. Routines which have int as the return value return 0 for success and -1 for failure.
For the non-reentrant functions, the return value may point to static area, and may be overwritten by subsequent calls to these functions.
The reentrant functions return zero on success. In case of error, an error value is returned.


Supplied buffer is too small.


shadow password database file
lock file
The include file <paths.h> defines the constant _PATH_SHADOW to the pathname of the shadow password file.



getgrnam(3), getpwnam(3), getpwnam_r(3), shadow(5)
2003-11-15 Shadow
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